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Dr. Mnazir

Selected Abstract of Key Papers


Companies face the challenges of expanding their markets, improving products, services and processes, and exploiting intellectual capital in a dynamic network. Therefore, more companies are turning to an Enterprise System (ES). Knowledge management (KM) has also received considerable attention and is continuously gaining the interest of industry, enterprises, and academia. For ES, KM can provide support across the entire lifecycle, from selection and implementation to use. In addition, it is also recognised that an ontology is an appropriate methodology to accomplish a common consensus of communication, as well as to support a diversity of KM activities, such as knowledge repository, retrieval, sharing, and dissemination. This paper examines the role of ontology-based KM for ES (OKES) and investigates the possible integration of ontology-based KM and ES. The authors develop a taxonomy as a framework for understanding OKES research. In order to achieve the objective of this study, a systematic review of existing research was conducted. Based on a theoretical framework of the ES lifecycle, KM, KM for ES, ontology, and ontology-based KM, guided by the framework of study, a taxonomy for OKES is established.

Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning, Enterprise Systems, Ontology, Ontology Application, Ontology-based Knowledge Management

How to cite using APAth Style ?

Ahmad, M. N., Zakaria, N. H., & Sedera, D. (2011). Ontology-based Knowledge Management for Enterprise Systems. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS), 7(4), 64-90.


In this work we have developed a formal ontology for perdurants suitable for representing interlocking institutional worlds in the general area of interoperating information systems. The formal ontology is a specialization of the perdurant elements of the DOLCE and Bunge–Wand–Weber universal formal ontologies using an abstract material ontology based on the theory of speech acts embodied in a method of information systems design taken from the literature. The perdurant formal ontology is necessarily integrated with an endurant formal ontology. The one used is taken from the literature. Like the formal endurant ontology used, our formal perdurant ontology is represented as a UML profile, enabling us to re-use the vast structure of UML. The formal endurant ontology was able to re-use the UML Instances model, so did not have to make specific provision for individuals. Our formal perdurant ontology was not able to do something comparable, because UML does not have a concept of a static description of instances of perdurants. We therefore needed to develop an instances model, based on the dynamic behavior typical of database transaction management systems which must preserve the integrity of a database under conditions of catastrophic system failure. Finally, we looked at the question of how institutional worlds interlock using our formal ontology, and discovered that the process is far more complex than importing objects from one ontology into another.

Keywords: Formal ontology, speech act, perdurant, UML profile

How to cite using APAth Style ?

Colomb, R. M., & Ahmad, M. N. (2010). A Perdurant Ontology For Interoperating Information Systems Based on Interlocking Institutional Worlds. Applied Ontology, 5(1), 1-77.


Nowadays, almost all enterprises are supported by Information Systems (ISs). For a group of systems (ISs) to interoperate, the organisations responsible for the systems must first agree on what the words mean in the interoperation. This agreement is called an ontology, a description of the world shared by the participants. This paper presents a set of high-level concepts (upper ontology) for interoperating ISs taking into account not only the ontology of information objects but also the ontology of messages and the actions performed by the interoperating systems. It integrates an existing formal ontology for information objects with an upper ontology for messages and actions based on speech act theory, represented in a uniform way using UML profiles.

Keywords: ontology; interlocking; IWs; institutional worlds; semantic web; UML; domain ontology.

How to cite using APAth Style ?

Ahmad, M. N., Colomb, R. M., & Sadiq, S. (2010). A UML Profile for Perdurant Ontology of Domain Interlocking Institutional Worlds. International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management, 6(3), 213-232.


Merging of ontologies is a frequently addressed problem in the ontology literature. This paper argues that in general two even very similar ontologies cannot be merged. Further, where two ontologies can be merged their conceptualizations are special. They are systems of institutional facts which are interlocking. The argument is based on the literature of the federated database problem and on the concepts of speech act and institutional fact.

Keywords: Formal ontology, speech act, perdurant, UML profile

How to cite using APAth Style ?

Colomb, R. M., & Ahmad, M. N. (2007). Merging Ontologies Requires Interlocking Institutional Worlds. Applied Ontology, 2(1), 1-12.


An information system supporting an organisation is based on concepts from the organisation's institutional world. An institutional world consists of a collection of “speech acts” and “institutional facts”. For a group of information systems to interoperate, the organizations responsible for these systems must first agree on what the words mean in the interoperation. This agreement is called an ontology. The ontology is generally defined as an explicit “specification” of a “conceptualization”. One of the major uses of ontology is to support interoperation of information systems. Many institutions whose systems are to interoperate are not fully autonomous; they do sometimes cooperate with each other, so that their “institutional worlds” will interlock therefore “interlocking ontologies”. Modeling interlocking institutional worlds (IWs) requires a dedicated representation system that gives a formal model which is the “specification of institutional facts” as well as the “specification of speech acts”. The ontology is the specification of institutional facts. However, we do not have a system that can give a formal model for the speech acts. Therefore, this paper adopts a synthesis approach to propose the UML extension for modeling speech acts in the context of interlocking institutional worlds. DEMO is one of the most popular Language Action Paradigms (LAP)-based methodologies based on speech act theory so is close to the concept of IWs. The UML is a standard modelling language in the world of information system development and currently there is a growing interest in its adoption as a language for conceptual modeling and business process representation. Taking advantage of the fact that UML is an OMG standard and its use is growing quickly, this paper proposes UML-based DEMO profiles purposely for modelling IWs.

Keywords: ontology, DEMO, UML, interlocking institutional worlds, business process.

How to cite using APAth Style ?

Ahmad, M. N., Colomb, R. M., & Sadiq, S. (2008). UML-based DEMO Profiles as Metaconcepts for Interlocking Institutional Worlds Paper presented at the 12th AIS Pacific-Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS'08), Suzhou, China.